Ageing results in decline of normal functioning in all organ systems including skin. Two types of skin ageing exist. These are intrinsic ageing, which includes those changes that are due to normal maturity and occur in all individuals and extrinsic ageing, produced by extrinsic factors such as ultraviolet light exposure, smoking, and environmental pollutants. Ageing also causes changes at cellular level. There is a decline in collagen and elastin which causes, wrinkles and loose skin. There is decrease in sweat and oil glands activity also.
Skin changes that accompany ageing include:
- Roughened or dry skin: Due to loss of moisture, skin becomes extremely dry and cracked leading to xerotic eczema.
- Benign growths such as seborrheic keratosis, cherry angiomas, skin tags etc.: These harmless growths are associated with ageing.
- Age spots: These are small brown spots on sun exposed areas.
- Loose facial skin, especially around the eyes, cheeks, and jowls (jawline): Due to reduction in collagen and elastin, there is loss of elasticity giving rise to above changes.
- Transparent or thinned skin leading to easy bruising: Due to decreased elastin skin gets bruised easily.
- Increased susceptibility to infections (due to low immunity): Fungal and bacterial infections are commonly seen. Also bedsores are common in bedridden patients.
- Skin cancer: certain types of skin cancer are seen with ageing.
These are conditions during pregnancy,